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What is Tunneling Protocol ?

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Introduction to Tunneling Protocol :-

  • In computer networks, a tunneling protocol allows a network user to access or provide a network service that the underlying network does not support or provide directly.

  • One important use of a tunneling protocol is to allow a foreign protocol to run over a network that does not support that particular protocol; for example, running IPv6 over IPv4.

  • Another important use is to provide services that are impractical or unsafe to be offered using only the underlying network services; for example, providing a corporate network address to a remote user whose physical network address is not part of the corporate network. Because tunneling involves repackaging the traffic data into a different form, perhaps with encryption as standard, a third use is to hide the nature of the traffic that is run through the tunnels.

  • The tunneling protocol works by using the data portion of a packet (the payload) to carry the packets that actually provide the service.

  • Tunneling uses a layered protocol model such as those of the OSI or TCP/IP protocol suite, but usually violates the layering when using the payload to carry a service not normally provided by the network.

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Port Forwarding :-

Port Forwarding is how we fix this problem: it’s a way to tell your router what computer inside the network incoming connections should be directed to. We have three different ways we can do this:

  • Faux-DMZ: a lot of routers have a feature called DMZ. This stands for Demilitarized Zone, which is a kind of network security configuration. The DMZ on home routers is often referred to as faux-DMZ because it lacks the features of an actual DMZ. What it does do is the simplest kind of incoming connection handling: all incoming connection requests will be sent to one specified inside your network. It’s dead simple – you type an IP address in to your router’s configuration, and all incoming connections go there. This doesn’t always work, though, because you might have multiple computers that need to accept incoming connections.

  • Port forwarding: All network connection requests include a “port”. The port is just a number, and it’s part of how a computer knows what the packet is. IANA has specified that Port 80 is used for HTTP. This means that an incoming packet that says port number 80 must be a request intended for a web server. Port forwarding on your router allows you to enter a port number (or possibly a range or combination of numbers, depending on the router), and an IP address. All incoming connections with a matching port number will be forwarded to the internal computer with that address.

  • UPnP port forwards: UPnP forwarding works the exact same way as port forwarding, but instead of you setting it up, software on a computer inside the network automatically sets the router to forward traffic on a given port to it.

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